The origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip Astley, who was born 1742 in Newcastle-under-Lyme, England. He became a cavalry officer who set up the first modern amphitheatre for the display of horse riding tricks in Lambeth, London on 4 April 1768. Astley did not originate trick horse riding, nor was he first to introduce acts such as acrobats and clowns to the English public, but he was the first to create a space where all these acts were brought together to perform a show. Astley performed stunts in a 42ft diameter ring, which is the standard size used by circuses ever since. In 1770 Astley hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between acts.